Human development is an intricate process which creates the positive change, development, improvement, expansion or the adding of human, physical, psychological, cultural, social and intellectual elements to the society. The primary objective of development is the development of human abilities and social capacities at the social, cultural, economical and political levels without damaging the natural resources of the planet. Development is an ever evolving process with the ability to adapt to changes and challenges presented by time and circumstances. With the introduction of newer technology and associated modernization in various sectors of business, education, health care and family relationships, people are now more capable of achieving the goals in all areas of their lives. This has created a major change in development theory, causing significant deviation from the original theory.
Most developed countries have a dominant political economy based on capitalism with high levels of automation. The classical economists argued that development occurs through the processes of accumulation of surplus capital, productivity growth of the workforce, increasing skills of the people through education and training as well as social services provided by governmental organizations. These processes have been instrumental in generating wealth and generating vast wealth for the upper strata of the society. These changes were also reflected in the global labour market where the majority of the workforce is now performing jobs at lower salaries as compared to the previous generation. The main drivers behind this phenomenon include increasing levels of complexity, income disparity, changes in social structures as well as loss of trust in the system.
Development has been viewed as a universal process with different people following their own developmental paths according to their needs and interests. The challenge facing development practitioners around the world today is to maintain the consistency of development efforts despite the arrival of complex socio-economic variables. There are many theories and views on development; however, the most consistent theoretical perspective on development is the universal concept of human development which seeks to enhance the basic values of human beings and lift them out of poverty. There are a number of strategies to implement the universal concepts of development. This includes improved management of natural resources such as land, water, forests and animal habitat; creation of economic value from natural resources; improvement in the quality and quantity of education and training; creation of workable knowledge repositories; better use of information and communication technology; creation of better economic policies and practices; and better utilization of open sources of energy and knowledge.